Importance of Monsoon in Indian Agriculture

What is Monsoon ?

The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’ meaning ‘season’. it’s represents secondary circulation of atmosphere and is thermally controlled.

Monsoons are seasonal changes or shifting in wind direction that can produce drought or excessive precipitation in low altitude climates that is called monsoon.

Importance of Monsoon in Indian Agriculture

In India monsoon refers to the rainy season a large portion of Indian farmers still depend upon rainfall to carried out the agriculture activity. Since agriculture is one of the most importance constitute on Indian economy ( contributing around 16% of it’s total GDP), Monsoon is has an indirect impact on it’s economy as well.

The amount of rainfall is the most important determinant of the type of crop raised. Where crop are raised in wet zone and dry zone.

The importance of monsoon in Indian agriculture are described as given below in point wise.

  1. Crops like Rice, Jute, Sugarcane, required high temperature and heavy rainfall for optimum yield that’s why these all crops grown in kharif season.
  2. Crops like wheat, and Barley required moderate temperature and rainfall that’s why productivity of these crop will be high in rabi season.
  3. Rubber trees required uniformly high temperature and regular rainfall all the year.
  4. In the southern part of the deccan, temperature is fairly high all the year and the rainfall is well distributed over 6-8 months therefore rubber is grown in southern part of deccan, etc are the most important part of monsoon in Indian Agriculture.

Mechanism of Monsoon in India

The Mechanism of creating a monsoon is similar to that of land-sea breeze phenomenon that occurs in areas where large bodies of water are capable of observing and retaining radiant energy from the sun for a long time. This is due to the fact that such bodies of water are able to absorb heat at different depths and reflects less, back to the atmosphere. Land masses on the other hand, lack depth in their observing surfaces.

During summer (March-June) land mass around tropics, particularly Asia, heats up faster and a low pressure belt develops. The pressure over the Indian ocean remains high. This lowland and high sea pressure variation establishes a thermal pressure gradient and sea land wind prevails. This is the simmer season monsoon (S-W monsoon or kharif).

The vast landmass cools rapidly and maintains a high pressure belt. The pressure over the vast ocean remains low due to high temperature. The pressure gradient direction reverses, being land to sea. Wind blows from continental landmass to sea. This is the winter monsoon (North-East or Rabi). It is cause winter precipitation.

Types of Monsoon or Indian Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied  by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

1. South-West Monsoon:

With the advancement of summer associated with northing of the sun by the end pf may. The r3gion of highest air temperature and lowest atmospheric pressure lies over north-west India. This Low pressure system takes over control of air currents over Asia so that southeast trade winds from south of equator are diverted into the Arabian sea and the bay of Bengal and appears suddenly over west coast of Indian and Burma respectively as south-west monsoon.

The Arabian sea branch of south-west monsoon, while crossing the western ghats, gives copious precipitation over that region and continues to flow eastwards across the Decan and central part of the country, meeting the bay branch of the monsoon along the through of low pressure which extends from Odisha to Northwest India. It is appears in west coasts by may end and spread precipitation in large parts of AP and Tamil Nadu. West coast districts of Kerala get heavy precipitation.

2. Nort-East Monsoon:

By the end of Sep, central Asia become the cold center of high pressure and draws the air from doldrums, which are the centers of low pressure. Wind blowing from central Asia passes over Tibet, India and India ocean to the southern hemisphere as north-east monsoon. The N-E monsoon is associated with rainy weather over southern parts of India., particularly over southern and Tamil Nadu from NOV-JAN.

Difference Between South-West and North-East Monsoon

South-West MonsoonNorth-East Monsoon
1. The time start from jun-sep.1. The time start from oct-feb.
2. Summer in north winter in south.2. Summer in south and winter north.
3. Difference pressure in central Asia and Australia.3. High pressure develops over Indian sub-contient and central Asia.
4. Deflect wind to the right.4. Deflect wind to the left.
5. For S-W monsoon winds and warm air picks of moisture.5. For N-E monsoon winds and warm air picks of moisture.
6. Bring heavy rain in India.6. Bring heavy rain to Australia.


This is the importance of monsoon in Indian Agriculture for the growing crops in proper ways. Monsoon helps to increase productivity of crops as well as yield and increase economy of farmers and country. There are also two types of monsoon which plays importance roles for precipitation in India.

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