15 Types of Farming System, Concept & Factor Affecting

Farming systems an important sector of the economy, Different types of farming system exist in the world, which vary depending on the region, culture, and farming practices. These farming systems have a significant impact on the economy, environment, and social development of a region. Farming systems are the backbone of agriculture and play a critical role in food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability.

In this article, we will explore 15 different types of farming systems and the factors that affect them. From traditional subsistence farming to innovative precision farming, we will discuss the benefits and challenges of each farming system and their impact on the economy, environment, and social development. By understanding the different types of farming systems and their importance, we can make informed decisions to ensure a resilient and sustainable future for agriculture.

What is Farming System

A farming system can be defined as a combination of different agricultural activities, practices, and technologies used to produce food, fiber, and other agricultural products. These activities may include crop production, livestock rearing, soil and water management, pest and disease control, and farm mechanization.

A farming system also takes into account the economic, social, and environmental aspects of agricultural production and seeks to optimize the use of resources while minimizing negative impacts on the environment. The specific type of farming system used in a region depends on various factors such as climate, topography, soil type, water availability, market demand, and technological advancements.

Concept of Farming System

The concept of farming systems recognizes that agriculture is not just about producing crops or raising livestock but is also an important economic activity that contributes to the development of rural areas. By adopting a farming system approach, farmers can ensure that their farming practices are sustainable and can meet the changing needs of society.

The farming system concept emphasizes the need for holistic and integrated approaches to agricultural production and encourages farmers to adopt innovative practices that can improve their productivity, profitability, and sustainability. Farming systems can be classified into different Types of Farming System, including subsistence farming, commercial farming, organic farming, precision farming, and vertical farming. Each Types of farming system has its unique benefits and challenges, and farmers need to select the most suitable farming system based on their resources and objectives.

List 15 Types of Farming System

There are numerous types of farming system, each with its unique benefits and challenges. The type of farming system practiced in a region depends on several factors, such as climate, topography, soil type, water availability, market demand, and technological advancements. 

In this article, we will discuss 15 types of farming system, factors affecting them, and their importance.

1.Intensive subsistence farming

Intensive subsistence farming is a type of farming system that involves cultivating small plots of land intensively to produce enough food for the farmer’s family. It is commonly practiced in Asia and involves the use of traditional farming methods such as irrigation, fertilization, and crop rotation.

2.Extensive subsistence farming

Extensive subsistence farming is a Type of Farming System that involves cultivating large areas of land to produce enough food for the farmer’s family. It is commonly practiced in Africa and involves the use of simple tools such as hoes and machetes.

3.Shifting cultivation

Shifting cultivation is a type of farming system that involves clearing land, cultivating crops for a few years, and then abandoning the land to regenerate. It is commonly practiced in tropical rainforest regions of Africa, Asia, and South America.

4.Ranching Farming

Nomadic herding is a type of farming system that involves moving from one place to another with livestock in search of grazing land. It is commonly practiced in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia.

5.Intensive commercial farming

Intensive commercial farming is a type of farming system that involves cultivating crops and rearing livestock on a large scale for commercial purposes. It involves the use of modern farming technologies such as mechanization, irrigation, and chemical fertilizers.

6.Extensive commercial farming

Extensive commercial farming is a type of farming system that involves cultivating crops and rearing livestock on a large scale for commercial purposes. It involves the use of large tracts of land and simple tools such as plows and harrows.

7.Organic farming

Organic farming is a types of farming system that involves using natural inputs such as compost and manure to cultivate crops and rear livestock. It emphasizes the use of sustainable farming practices that do not harm the environment or human health.

8.Permaculture

Permaculture is a types of farming system that involves designing sustainable agricultural ecosystems that mimic natural ecosystems. It emphasizes the use of perennial crops, agroforestry, and natural pest management.

9.Aquaculture

Aquaculture is a type of farming system that involves rearing aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, and seaweed. It is commonly practiced in coastal regions and involves the use of artificial ponds, tanks, and cages.

10.Hydroponics

Hydroponics is a type of farming system that involves growing crops in nutrient-rich water without soil. It is commonly practiced in urban areas and involves the use of artificial lighting and controlled environmental conditions.

11.Agroforestry

Agroforestry is a type of farming system that involves integrating trees and crops in the same farming system. It emphasizes the use of sustainable farming practices that improve soil fertility, reduce soil erosion, and increase biodiversity.

12.Precision farming

Precision farming is a type of farming system that involves using modern technologies such as GPS and sensors to optimize crop production. It involves the use of data analytics to monitor crop growth and apply inputs such as water and fertilizer in precise amounts and at specific times.

13.Vertical farming

Vertical farming is a type of farming system that involves growing crops in vertically stacked layers in a controlled environment. It involves the use of artificial lighting, temperature control, and hydroponic systems to grow crops without soil.

14.Diversify  Farming

A farm on which the income from a single product is less than or not equal to 50% of the total farm income is called a diversify farming or general farming. Subsistence farming or marginal farming is a Diversify Farming.

15.Mixed farming

Mixed farming is a type of farming system that involves combining different types of agricultural activities, such as crop production and livestock rearing, on the same farm. This type of farming system emphasizes the use of integrated farming practices that improve soil fertility, reduce soil erosion, and increase productivity.

Scope of Farming System

Some of the scopes of farming systems are described below:

1.Agriculture as a Vital Source of Food:

Farming systems are essential for the production of food, which is a basic need for human survival. The scope of farming systems includes the cultivation of crops, livestock rearing, and fisheries.

2.Economic Importance:

Farming systems contribute significantly to the economy by providing employment opportunities ,generating income for farmers and agricultural businesses, and providing raw materials for various industries.

3.Environmental Impact:

Farming systems have a significant impact on the environment, including land use, water resources, and biodiversity. Sustainable farming practices aim to minimize negative environmental impacts while maximizing production.

4.Food Security:

Farming systems are crucial for ensuring food security at the national and global level. They provide a stable food supply and help to prevent food shortages and famine.

5.Technological Advancements:

Farming systems are continually evolving with the development of new technologies and innovations. This includes the use of precision agriculture, biotechnology, and other tools to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity.

What are the Factor affecting of Farming System

Several factors affect the types of farming system practiced in a region. These factors include:

1.Climate:

The climate of a region affects the type of crops that can be grown and the type of livestock that can be reared. It is the most important factor which affect the scope of types of farming System. It includes rainfall length of growing season, temperature, sunshine, frost, and strong wind etc.

2.Topography:

Topography generally refers to the slope or height of the place where the farm is situated. The topography of a region affects the availability of land for farming and the type of farming practices that can be used. For instance different crop may be cultivated of different elevations in hill areas. Heavy machinery cannot be utilized at high altitude because of the rough and slopy surface of the fields which happens to be small and scattered plots.

3.Soil type:

The type of soil in a region affects the type of crops that can be grown and the type of farming practices that can be used. Soil fertility is another important factor which determine the type of farming. 

4.Water availability:

The availability of water affects the type of crops that can be grown and the type of irrigation systems that can be used.

5.Market demand and Cost:

The market demand for certain crops and livestock products affects the type of farming system practiced in a region. The cost of marketing problem determine what products will or should be produced.

6.Availability of Labor and Capital:

Farm enterprises requiring intensive operations require a good amount of labor involvement and capital investment.

7.Technological advancements

Technological advancements in farming practices affect the type of farming system practiced in a region. 

Component of  Farming System

Component of Types of Farming System
Component of Types of Farming System

1.Cropping System:

Cropping system likes, monocrop, mixed crops, intercrops, multilayers crops of cereals (legumes, oilseeds, forage, etc).

2.Livestock Component:

Livestock component may be cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, poultry, and honey bees, etc.

3.Tree Component:

Trees component may includes fruits trees, timber, and fodder, etc.

Importance of Farming System:

Farming systems have a significant impact on the economy, environment, and social development of a region. The importance of farming systems includes:

  • Provides raw materials to Agro-industries and recycling of farm waste.
  • Farming systems are essential for producing enough food to meet the nutritional needs of a population.
  • Farming systems provide employment opportunities for millions of people worldwide.
  • Farming systems contribute to the economic development of a region by generating income and creating value-added products.
  • Sustainable farming practices used in farming systems can help to conserve the environment by reducing soil erosion, improving soil fertility, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Farming systems that use agroforestry and mixed farming practices can help to conserve biodiversity by promoting the use of diverse plant and animal species.
  • Farming systems can contribute to social development by promoting community engagement and social cohesion.

FAQs

What is a farming system?

A farming system refers to the set of resources, technologies, and practices used to produce agricultural products. It includes various activities such as land preparation, planting, harvesting, and marketing. The farming system is influenced by various factors such as climate, soil type, market demand, and socioeconomic factors.

What Factors Affect The Type Of Farming System Used In A Region?

The type of farming system used in a region is influenced by various factors such as climate, soil type, topography, water availability, market demand, and socio-economic factors such as land tenure, access to credit, and availability of labor.

What is the concept of farming systems?

The concept of farming systems refers to the holistic approach to agricultural production, which considers the interactions between various components of the farming system. It involves understanding the relationships between crops, livestock, soil, water, and people, and using this knowledge to optimize agricultural production in a sustainable and efficient manner.

What Are The Benefits Of Adopting A Farming System Approaches?

1. Improved productivity and profitability
2. Reduced environmental impact
3. Enhanced resilience to climate change and other external factors
4. Increased food security and improved nutrition
5. The improved social and economic well-being of farming communities

What are the different types of farming system?

There are several different Types of Farming System, including: Arable farming, Mixed farming ,Pastoral farming, Intensive farming, Extensive farming, Subsistence farming, Commercial farming. Organic farming, Agroforestry, Horticulture, Aquaculture, Apiculture, Sericulture, Silviculture, and Permaculture, etc.

What Are The Principle Of Farming System?

1. Minimization of Risk.
2. Recycling of two or more enterprises.
3. Optimum utilization of all resources.
4. Maximum productivity and profitability.
5. Ecological balance.
6. Increase input use efficiency, etc.

Conclusion

In conclusion, farming systems are diverse and varied, and each Type of Farming System has its unique benefits and challenges. Factors such as climate, topography, soil type, water availability, market demand, and technological advancements affect the Type of Farming System practiced in a region. The importance of farming systems includes food security, employment opportunities, economic development, environmental conservation, biodiversity conservation, and social development. As we face increasing environmental challenges, sustainable farming practices that Emphasis the use of regenerative agricultural systems are becoming increasingly essential to ensure a resilient food system and a sustainable future.

Read Also:

Crop Rotation: Objectives, Principles, Advantages & Disadvantages

Layering Propagation : 5 Types, Advantages & Disadvantages

Cropping System: Principles, Types And Advantages

Integrated Farming System: Models, Objectives & Advantages

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