Component of organic Farming in India

In this post we will discuss about component of organic farming. The organic farming system in India is not new and is being followed since ancient times. It is a method of a farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (biofertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly pollution free environment.

As per the definition of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) study team on organic farming, “organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives, etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection”.

FAO suggested that “Organic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.

Component of organic Farming

The Eight (8) component of organic farming are described as given below:


The success of organic farming depends on the soil type and fertility of the farm. It should always be noted that the soil in the field where you want to do organic farming should be healthy and fertile. Some insecticides are present in soil and water for years.

These can adversely affect the nervous system through crop products which can also lead to serious diseases like cancer. Therefore, as far as possible, one should stay away from pesticides. Before starting organic farming, the land is not considered suitable for organic food for two years. So that during this period crops can absorb all the harmful and toxic elements present in the soil. In this way, the inorganic chemical elements of the soil are completely eliminated.


 Any species of crop can be planted for organic farming. But it has been felt that indigenous species will be more suitable for organic farming. Because their energy demand is less, some crops are fragile and susceptible to pests and diseases. As far as possible, anti-disease species of crops should be selected. Often, a packet of seeds of such crops is inscribed. It is also notable here that transgenic crops and their species are not used in organic farming.


 Among the organic manures used in the country are dung manure, compost manure, vermicompost, poultry manure, animal laying, pigs and sheep manure, and cow dung manure. Normally 5 kg of cow dung and one ton of compost manure. Nitrogen, 2-5 kg phosphorus, and 5 kg potash are available. But unfortunately, we are able to use only 50 percent of them. Mostly dung is used by farmers to burn as dung cakes. Some biodynamic manures like cow urine, animal horn manure, and bone manure are also being used in organic farming.

Compost made with the help of earthworms by mixing crop residues, weeds, leaves of herb vegetables, and cow dung is called vermicompost or earthworm compost. By this method, organic residues are kept in a long pile and earthworms are left in the Eichenia femida.

The vermicompost is prepared in about 45 days. Organic fertilizers improve soil quality as well as increase the availability of major, second and micronutrients. Only 30 percent of the given amount of organic fertilizers in a crop is used in the first year, the remaining amount is used by the next crop. The availability of phosphorus in the soil also increases due to the humic content in organic fertilizers.


The use of organic fertilizers is proving beneficial in taking good production of crops. Among them, Rhizobium culture, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, PSB, Azola, vesicular mycorrhiza, indigo-green algae, bio activator, etc. are prominent. The use of organic fertilizers is very important for sustainable farming and maintaining soil health. Organic fertilizers are readily available at low cost and they are also very easy to use. The use of organic fertilizers increases the yield of various crops by 10 to 25 percent. They are considered to be the main ingredients of organic farming management.

Rhizobium and Azotobacter provide nitrogen (78 percent) present in the atmosphere and deposited in the ground through fixation. PSB By changing the insoluble phosphorus in the soil to a soluble state, the phosphorus for the plants increases the availability, which also benefits the successive crops.

In addition, bacterial fertilizers produce growth factor hormones around the roots of plants (rhizosphere) which have a favorable effect on plant growth and development. Organic fertilizers should be selected according to the variety of crops. While using organic fertilizer, must see the production date, the last date of use, and the name of the recommended crop above the packet. While using organic fertilizers should be protected from sunlight and hot air.


The use of green manure can increase the quantity and availability of all secondary and micronutrients in the soil, besides the main elements like carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash. Pulses are mainly used for green manure. Sanai, Dhaincha, Cowpea, Moong, Guar, and Soyabean are the main among them. It takes only two months to make green manure from these crops. All these crops are short-term and fast-growing. These crops are pressed into the soil with the help of a soil-turning plow or harrow before flowering.

Green manure crop takes about 10 days to rot. After this, the field is prepared and the next crop is sown and planted. Using green manures can easily secure 20-30 kg of nitrogen in the field. In addition, the reserves of phosphorus, potash, and micronutrients can also be increased.

Multipurpose trees and plants like acacia, neem, and glycerides leaves and twigs can also be used as green manure. Farmer brothers must grow green manure crops once in three to four years. With this, the fertility of the land not only increases but also improves soil health.


The crop must be grown once a year. Pulses are not only a nutritional base for more than half of India’s population but are also the cheapest source of protein and essential amino acid supplies. In addition, due to lack of protein in the diet, malnutrition due to lack of protein can also be prevented. The roots of lentil crops contain knots of Rhizobium bacteria, which act as nitrogen fixation.

After harvesting wheat, coral crops should be taken. After plucking two coral beans, the crop should be plowed and mixed into the soil. Its use increases the amount of bacterial substance in the soil which ultimately supplies the main nutrients as well as secondary and micronutrients in the soil after decomposition. Due to this the fertility of the land increases. Also, soil health also improves.


Farmer brothers generally ignore the contribution of crop residues in crop production. The use of crop residues is common in the paddy-wheat crop cycle in northwest India. Due to mechanization and increasing productivity in agriculture, an excessive amount of crop residue is being produced. Farmers often burn crop residues after harvesting donations after harvesting. It is quite prevalent in Punjab, Haryana, and West Uttar Pradesh as well as other parts of the country. Environmental pollution is increased by the smoke emanating from the burning of crop residues. Also, heart and lung diseases also increase due to smoke.

The amount of organic carbon in the soil can be improved by using crop residues in organic farming. Similarly, after plucking the fruits of vegetables, their stem, leaves, and roots remain in the field, which by plowing and pressing in the soil improves the fertility of the field. Crop, straw, sawdust, and farm residues are prominent among the crop residues. Although crop residue has an important contribution in providing nutrients. But most of the crop residues are burnt in the field or thrown out of the field. Crop residues have a favorable effect on the physical, chemical, and biological functions of the soil along with providing nutrients to the plants.


As far as possible, weeds in organic farming should be controlled only through weeding. In addition, weeds can be controlled by deep plowing in summer, solarization by sun rays, proper crop management, and an adequate number of plants per unit area. Also, parasites and other bacteria that eat weeds can be used. In addition, weeds can also be eliminated by sowing the main crop in organic farming, giving them an opportunity to grow.


In conclusion, the Component of Organic Farming in India, deeply rooted in ancient traditions, offers a sustainable and ecologically friendly approach to agriculture. By prioritizing the vitality of soil and utilizing organic waste materials, biofertilizers, and beneficial microbes, organic farming aims to enhance agro-ecosystem health, biodiversity, and soil biological activity. The principles outlined by the USDA and FAO underscore the importance of minimizing synthetic inputs and maximizing the use of natural methods for nutrient mobilization and plant protection.

Read More:

Major Problems Of Organic Farming In India 2023

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